This sub-clade of E1b1b1 (E-M35) is mostly known for its major sub-clade E1b1b1c1 (E-M34), which dominates this clade. As of 11 November 2008 for example, the E-M35 phylogeny project had records of four E-M123* tests, compared to 93 test results with E-M34. However, earlier studies did not test for E-M34.
E-M34 will therefore also be discussed in this article.
- Sub Clades of E1b1b1c1 (E-M34):
Distribution according to published survey findings
E-M123* survey findings where E-M34 was tested, and found to be negative
- Cruciani et al. (2004) located one individual in Bulgaria after testing 3401 individuals from five continents (of which 116 were Bulagarian), and Underhill et al. (2000) located one individual in Central Asia out of 1062 people tested, including 184 from Central Asia and Siberia.
- In a 568 person study in Iberia, Flores et al. (2004) found 2 E-M123* individuals, both in Northern Portugal out of 109 people tested there.
- In a 553 person study of Portugal, Gonçalves et al. (2005) also found 2 E-M123* individuals in Northern Portugal, out of 101 people, as well as 2 in Madeira out of 129 people tested there.
- Flores et al. (2005) found one individual out of 146 Jordanians, this being one of the 101 individuals tested in Amman.
- Arredi et al. (2004) found 1 Tunisian from Tunis in their study of 275 men in Northern Africa, which included 148 people from Tunis.
- Studied which tested for E-M123* but found none include...
- Cinnioğlu et al. (2004), with 523 individuals in Anatolia;
- Cadenas et al. (2007) found none amongst the significant presence of E-M34 they found in their study of the UAE, Yemen and Qatar.
- Martinez et al. (2007) found none in their 168 person study of Crete.
- Shen et al. (2004) found none in their study of 169 Israelis and Palestinians of various ancestry.
"E-M123*" survey findings where E-M34 was not tested (which might therefore be M34+)
- Beleza et al. (2006) also found examples in Portugal.
- Sanchez et al. (2005) found one sample in Somalia.
- Semino et al. (2004) reports relatively high levels of 13% in the Albanian community of Cosenza, in Calabria. A notably high regional frequency for E-M123 was in Oman, where it is apparently the dominant clade of E-M35.
- Luis et al. (2004) found 12 men out of 121 there were E-M123 positive, while in Egypt there were 7 out of 147. But in that study the Omani E-M123 diversity implied a younger age than the E-M123 found in Egypt. (Cruciani et al. (2004) tested for E-M34 in Oman and found 7.7% to be E-M34+, with no E-M123*.)
- Di Gaetano et al. (2008) found 4.66% overall in their 236 person study of Sicily, with higher levels in the east of the island. They found none in Trapani (33 people), Alcamo (24 people), and Cacamo (16 people) along the west of the north coast; 3.23% in San Ninfa (31 people) inland in the west; 3.57% in Sciacca (28 people) and Ragusa (28 people) along the south coast; and then high levels in the east in Troina (10% of 30 people), Piazza Armerina (10.71% of 28 people), as well as near the Southwestern extreme facing Africa at Mazaro de Vallo (11.11% of 18 people).
- Adams et al. (2008) found 11 E-M123 people in their 1140 person study of Iberia: 1 out of 95 Eastern Andalusians; 1 out of 100 NW Castilians; 1 out of 80 Catalonians; 2 out of 52 Extramadurans; 2 out of 60 Northern Portuguese, 1 out of 78 Southern Portuguese, 1 out of 73 Southern Portuguese; 1 out of 73 Valencians; and highest levels apparently in the Balearics with 5 out of 37 Minorcans and 4 out of 54 Ibizans. There were none in Majorca (62 people), Gascony (24), Galicia (88), NE Castile (31), Castilla la Mancha (63), The Basque Country (116), the Asturias (20), West Andalucia (73), and Aragon (34).
- Contu et al (2008) found 9 out of 323 people in 3 areas of Sardinia. 4 out of 187 in Cagliari, 1 out of 103 in Sorgono, and 4 out of 86 in Tempio.
- Zalloua et al. (2008b) found 26 E-M123 cases out of 164 Cypriots. This was apparently higher than the level of E-M78. Also see the same data set in El-Sibai et al. (2009) for clarity. The same Zalloua et al. study reports 27 Palestinians out of 291 tested, which the El-Sidai summary makes clear contained 100 tests done which could show M123 was positive or not, who were Palestinians from Acre, of whom only 6 were positive.
Surveys reporting E1b1b1c1 (E-M34)
- According to Cruciani et al. (2004), E-M34 is found at small frequencies in North Africa and Southern Europe (6.6% in Sicily for example), and has its highest concentration in Ethiopia and the Near East (with highest levels in Oman and Turkey). However, because the diversity is apparently low in Ethiopia, the authors suggest that E-M34 was likely introduced into Ethiopia from the Near East.
- In Turkey, Cinnioğlu et al. (2004) found slightly more E-M34 (29) than E-M78 (26) out of 523 individuals tested (a far different E1b1b population than found in the nearby Balkans).
- In Flores et al. (2004) E-M34 was found in several parts of Iberia, but most strikingly about 10% in Galicia.
- Gonçalves et al. (2005) found about the same levels of E-M34 in Portugal as E-M123*, but E-M34 mainly in Central Portugal (4 people out of 102 tested there) with one more person found in the Açores.
- Strikingly, Flores et al. (2005) found 14 out of 45 men tested in the Dead Sea area of Jordan to be M34 positive (31.1%), while in the capital Amman there were only 4 out of 101.
- Cadenas et al. (2007) found 8.1% of 62 men tested in Yemen were positive for M34, compared to much lower levels in Qatar (1.4%) and the UAE (3.1%).
- Arredi et al. (2004) found 2 out of 148 Tunisians from Tunis, 2 out of 19 Algerian Berbers from Tizi Ouzu in Kabylie, and 3 out of 44 North Egyptians, 4 out of 29 South Egyptians in their study of 275 men in Northern Africa.
- Martinez et al. (2007) found 3 in their 168 person study of Crete, 2 in Heraklion and 1 in Lasithi.
- Regueiro et al. (2006) found one in South Iran out of 117 people, and none in North Iran out of 33 people.
- Shen et al. (2004) found 4 out of 20 tested Israeli Jews of Libyan ancestry to be M123+.
Haplowiki comment: E-M123's fascinating geographical distrubution
The most obvious geographical pattern which can be observed is between E-M34, which dominates E-M123, and areas where Semitic languages are spoken. For example in Africa E-M34 is most common amongst the South Semitic speakers of the Horn of Africa.
However E-M34 is not common in all Semitic speaking areas, and it is not only found in Semitic speaking areas. It is found in 3 areas which can perhaps be described as areas on the periphery of the area of influence of the "Fertile Crescent" where Semitic has long been the dominant language group: Turkey, Oman, the Horn of Africa. See E-M34 for more discussion on this.
Far less easy to understand so far is the pattern of E-M123*. This is a very rare clade, but very widely distributed. As can be seen from the data collected above, it can not so easily be correlated to Semitic or indeed any language or ethnicity or region. As will be discussed below, the main way we can consider it's probable point of origin is in fact only by looking at its parent (E-M35, which is thought to have an origin in the Horn of Africa) and it's dominant sub-clade (E-M34, which is though to have an origin in the Levant).
It can also be remarked that there are indications that the major sibling clades of E-M123 may have have originated in the area of Egypt. Cruciani et al. (2007) propose this for E-M78, while Arredi et al. (2004) and Luis et al. (2004) propose this (with some uncertainty) for E-M81.