Time and place of origin
According to Luis et al. (2004) E-M34, like E-M123 more generally, represents a branch of E-M35 which anciently traveled across the Sinai from Egypt to Israel and the Levant. Furthermore, while the exact placing of particular mutations is not easy (Egypt or the Levant) it is clear that the geographical distribution of M34 appears to have dispersed from the Levant.
Some of the further dispersion of E-M34 after this time is probably connected to the dispersion of Semitic speaking peoples around the greater Middle East, and also in subsequent migrations around the Mediterranean and Red Sea (Lancaster (2009)).
1. One piece of evidence E-M34 being anciently dispersed from the Levant is the data from Jordan found by Flores et al. (2005), especially amongst the Dead Sea population who were specifically chosen in order to try to get an understanding of older populations.
2. Secondly E1b1b1c1 (E-M34) is also quite common among both Ashkenazi and Sephardic Jews, accounting for over 10% of all male lines Semino et al. (2004) Table 1. This makes it a contender for being a male line that has remained in the Jewish population since before their diaspora.
Coffman-Levy (2005) wrote that:
- ...the best candidate for possible E3b Israelite ancestry among Jews is E-M123. This sub-clade occurs in almost the same proportions (approximately 10-12%) among both Ashkenazim and Sephardim Semino et al. (2004). According to Cruciani et al. (2004), E-M123 probably originated in the Middle East, since it is found in a large majority of the populations from that area, and then back-migrated to Ethiopia. He further notes that this sub-clade may have been spread to Europe during the Neolithic agricultural expansion out of the Middle East. However, because E-M123 is also found in low percentages (1-3%) in many southern European and Balkan populations, its origin among Jewish groups remains uncertain Semino et al. (2004). Yet the fact that both Sephardim and Ashkenazim possess this sub-clade in similar high frequency supports an Israelite/Middle Eastern origin.
3. Given the connection of E-M34 with Semitic, it is very important to note that there is a widely known theory associated with Juris Zarins that Semitic languages originate in the Levant, and were spread to the rest of the Middle East by very early pastoralists who may have had some more ancient connections to Africa.
Middle East and nearby (Egypt, Horn of Africa, Iran and the Caucasus)
E-M34 is rarely found in large percentages, but it is found throughout the Middle East, and in nearby regions. Online Genetic Genealogy resources include the Arab DNA Project, ARABIAN-E-Y DNA PROJECT and ARAB WORLD DNA PROJECT . Published results include:-
- According to Cruciani et al. (2004), E-M34 has its highest concentration in Ethiopia and the Near East (with highest levels in Oman and Turkey). However, because the diversity is apparently low in Ethiopia, the authors suggest that E-M34 was likely introduced into Ethiopia from the Near East.
- Sanchez et al. (2005) found one sample in Somalia. This study did not test for M34.
- In Turkey, Cinnioğlu et al. (2004) found about 5%. There was slightly more E-M34 (29) than E-M78 (26) out of 523 individuals tested (a far different E1b1b population than found in the nearby Balkans).
- Strikingly, Flores et al. (2005) found 14 out of 45 men tested in the Dead Sea area of Jordan to be M34 positive (31.1%), while in the capital Amman there were only 4 out of 101.
- Cadenas et al. (2007) found 8.1% of 62 men tested in Yemen were positive for M34, compared to much lower levels in Qatar (1.4%) and the UAE (3.1%).
- Arredi et al. (2004) found 2 out of 148 Tunisians from Tunis, 2 out of 19 Algerian Berbers from Tizi Ouzu in Kabylie, and 3 out of 44 North Egyptians, 4 out of 29 South Egyptians in their study of 275 men in Northern Africa.
- Regueiro et al. (2006) found one in South Iran out of 117 people, and none in North Iran out of 33 people.
- Shen et al. (2004) found 4 out of 20 tested Israeli Jews of Libyan ancestry to be M123+.
- Semino et al. (2004) found a notably high regional frequency for E-M123 in Oman, where it is apparently the dominant clade of E-M35. This study did not test for M34.
- Luis et al. (2004) found 12 men out of 121 there were E-M123 positive, while in Egypt there were 7 out of 147. But in that study the Omani E-M123 diversity implied a younger age than the E-M123 found in Egypt. This study did not test for M34 but Cruciani et al. (2004) tested for E-M34 in Oman and found 7.7% to be E-M34+, with no E-M123*.
- Zalloua et al. (2008b) found 27 Palestinians out of 291 tested. Also see the same data set in El-Sibai et al. (2009) for more details, for example 6 out of 100 Palestinians from Acre were E-M123. This study did not test for M34.
Europe and Northern Africa
To the west E-M34 has been detected in a small percentage of the population in the coastal countries of Europe.
- According to Cruciani et al. (2004), E-M34 is found at small frequencies in North Africa and Southern Europe (6.6% in Sicily for example).
- In Flores et al. (2004) E-M34 was found in several parts of Iberia, but most strikingly about 10% in Galicia.
- Gonçalves et al. (2005) found about the same levels of E-M34 in Portugal as E-M123*, but E-M34 mainly in Central Portugal (4 people out of 102 tested there) with one more person found in the Açores.
- Martinez et al. (2007) found 3 in their 168 person study of Crete, 2 in Heraklion and 1 in Lasithi.
- Bosch et al. (2006) found E-M123 examples in Greece, the Republic of Macedonia, and Roumania. This study did not test for M34.
- Beleza et al. (2006) also found examples in Portugal. This study did not test for M34.
- Semino et al. (2004) reports relatively high levels of 13% in the Albanian community of Cosenza, in Calabria. A notably high regional frequency for E-M123 was in Oman, where it is apparently the dominant clade of E-M35.
- Di Gaetano et al. (2008) found 4.66% overall in their 236 person study of Sicily, with higher levels in the east of the island. They found none in Trapani (33 people), Alcamo (24 people), and Cacamo (16 people) along the west of the north coast; 3.23% in San Ninfa (31 people) inland in the west; 3.57% in Sciacca (28 people) and Ragusa (28 people) along the south coast; and then high levels in the east in Troina (10% of 30 people), Piazza Armerina (10.71% of 28 people), as well as near the Southwestern extreme facing Africa at Mazaro de Vallo (11.11% of 18 people).
- Adams et al. (2008) found 11 E-M123 people in their 1140 person study of Iberia: 1 out of 95 Eastern Andalusians; 1 out of 100 NW Castilians; 1 out of 80 Catalonians; 2 out of 52 Extramadurans; 2 out of 60 Northern Portuguese, 1 out of 78 Southern Portuguese, 1 out of 73 Southern Portuguese; 1 out of 73 Valencians; and highest levels apparently in the Balearics with 5 out of 37 Minorcans and 4 out of 54 Ibizans. There were none in Majorca (62 people), Gascony (24), Galicia (88), NE Castile (31), Castilla la Mancha (63), The Basque Country (116), the Asturias (20), West Andalucia (73), and Aragon (34).
- Contu et al (2008) found 9 out of 323 people in 3 areas of Sardinia. 4 out of 187 in Cagliari, 1 out of 103 in Sorgono, and 4 out of 86 in Tempio.
- Zalloua et al. (2008b) found 26 E-M123 cases out of 164 Cypriots. This was apparently higher than the level of E-M78. Also see the same data set in El-Sibai et al. (2009) for clarity. The same Zalloua et al. study reports 27 Palestinians out of 291 tested, which the El-Sidai summary makes clear contained 100 tests done which could show M123 was positive or not, who were Palestinians from Acre, of whom only 6 were positive.
Clusters and descending sub-clades
Haplogroup E1b1b1c1 *- M34 has several identified clusters and descending lines (sub-clades) by the E-M35 project so far. (Note that many more cases have not yet been classified into clear clusters.)
Clusters based on STR analysis
The following have been identified by the E-M35 phylogeny project:-
- E1b1b1c1*-A is determined by the values of markers DYS393 = 14/15, DYS390 = 23, DYS19 = 13/14/15. This has been found in a small number of people with European surnames so far.
- E1b1b1c1*-B (M34 UAE) - Arabian line, found in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) only so far.
- E1b1b1c1*-C is determined by the values of markers DYS393 = 14, DYS389 = 13/28, DYS448 = 19, DYS460 = 10, GATAH4 = 11, YCAII = 19/22. Discovered amongst people with British surnames so far.
- E1b1b1c1*-D1 - apparently a Jewish cluster so far
- E1b1b1c1*-D2 - found amongst people with European surnames so far
Sub-clades defined by SNP mutation
E-M84 forms an important sub-clade of E-M34. It appears to have a sub-cluster in turn known as E-M136.
In addition to the E-M34* STR clusters above, the following STR clusters of E-M84 have also so far been identified: In turn, there are "Jewish" clusters in this sub-clade:
- E1b1b1c1a-A appears to be Jewish
- E1b1b1c1a-B appears to be Jewish
- E1b1b1c1a-C appears to be Jewish
- E1b1b1c1a-D is found in people with a mixture of European surnames so far.
- E1b1b1c1a-E found in Arabian populations so far.
E1b1b1c1b is defined by SNP-mutation M290. Observed so far in one Palestinian Arab according to Shen et al. (2004).
Famous people - carriers of M34, M84
- William Harvey (1578-1657) - English physician, the founder of physiology and embryology, in particular, formulated the theory of blood circulation.
- Johan Philip Korn (1727-1796) - Swedish artist.
- Arthur Wilde Parsons (1854-1931) - a British artist, seascapes and watercolorist, worked in Bristol and London.
- Francis Ford Coppola (1939) - American film director, creator of the trilogy "The Godfather" and a film about the Vietnam War, “Apocalypse Now”.
- Adriano Celentano (1938) - Italian actor, singer, composer and director.
- Denis Joseph Savard (1961) - a professional hockey player, striker of the National Hockey League (NHL ) in 1980-1997.