|This page is either fully or partly based upon content from the English Wikipedia. The original content was at E1b1b. The list of authors can be seen in the page history.|
According to Cruciani et al. (2007), E-V12 likely originated in North Africa, in the area of Libya and Egypt. This sub-clade is the one which appears to have split from the other sub-clades of E-M78 first (it arose ca. 13.7-15.2 kya; see Figure 1 in Cruciani et al. (2007)).
Sub Clades of E1b1b1a1 (E-V12)
E1b1b1a1a*: Undifferentiated E-V12* lineages
This nomenclature is not a true clade, or at least it is not yet known to be one. This is a "para-clade" where the "*" shows that individuals in this V12 category are not in any of the known sub-clades of E-V12.
E-V12* individuals are found at especially high levels (44.3%) in Southern Egyptians, but also scattered widely in small amounts in both Northern Africa and Europe, but with very little sign in Western Asia, apart from Turkey (Cruciani et al. (2007)).
These E-V12* lineages were formerly included (along with many E-V22* lineages) in Cruciani et al.'s original (2004) "delta cluster", which he had defined using DYS profiles. They stated that "E-V22 and E-V12* chromosomes are intermingled and not clearly differentiated by their microsatellite haplotypes"Cruciani et al. (2004).
After the discovery of the clade-defining SNP, Cruciani et al. (2007) reported that E-V12* was found in its highest concentrations in Egypt, especially Southern Egypt. (The authors also showed that a branch of E-V13 found amongst the Druze Arabs is also in the delta cluster. This can be seen by contrasting the data tables of Cruciani et al. (2007) and Cruciani et al. (2004).)
Hassan et al. (2008) report a significant presence of E-V12* in neighboring Sudan, including 5/39 Nubians, and 5/33 Copts. E-V12* made up approximately 20% of the Sudanese E-M78. They propose that the E-V12 and E-V22 sub-clades of E1b1b1a (E-M78) might have been brought to Sudan from their place of origin in North Africa after the progressive desertification of the Sahara around 6,000–8,000 years ago. Sudden climate change might have forced several Neolithic cultures/people to migrate northward to the Mediterranean and southward to the Sahel and the Nile Valley (Hassan et al. (2008)). The E-V12* paragroup is also observed in Europe (e.g. amongst French Basques) and Eastern Anatolia (e.g. Erzurum Turks) (Cruciani et al. (2007)).
It has been found in Israel among Yemeni population (5%) and appears to be a minor subclade.
Its discovery was announced in Underhill et al. (2001) and Shen et al. (2004) found 1 out of their 20 Yemeni Israelis they tested. Cruciani et al. (2006) called M224 "rare and rather uninformative" and they found no exemplars.
Onofri et al. (2006), while testing a new multiplex, claimed 2 African examples amongst a 9 person African dataset containing 3 Kenyans, 2 people from the Maghreb, 3 Nigerians, and 1 Senegalese. In their European dataset they also had 5 exemplars out of 68 people (56 central Italians, 10 Poles, 1 Greek, 1 Albanian).
Cruciani et al. (2007) suggest that this sub-clade of E-V12 originated in North Africa (around Egypt and Libya), and then subsequently expanded further south into the Horn of Africa, where it is now prevalent (Cruciani et al. (2007): Fig. 2/C).
Before the discovery of V32, Cruciani et al. (2004) referred to the same lineages as the "gamma cluster", which was estimated to have arisen about 8,500 years ago. They stated that "the highest frequencies in the three Cushitic-speaking groups: the Borana from Kenya (71.4%), the Oromo from Ethiopia (32.0%), and the Somali (52.2%).
Outside of eastern Africa, it was found only in two subjects from Egypt (3.6%) and in one Arab from Morocco". Sanchez et al. (2005) found it extremely prominent in Somali men and stated that "the male Somali population is a branch of the East African population – closely related to the Oromos in Ethiopia and North Kenya (Boranas)" and that their gamma cluster lineages "probably were introduced into the Somali population 4000–5000 years ago". Hassan et al. (2008) in their study observed this to be the most common of the sub-clades of E-M78 found in Sudan, especially among the Beja, Masalit, and Fur.
The Beja, like Somalis and Oromos, speak an Afro-Asiatic language and live along the "corridor" from Egypt to the Horn of Africa. On the other hand, the Masalit and Fur live in Darfur and speak a Nilo-Saharan language. The authors observed in their study that "the Masalit possesses by far the highest frequency of the E-M78 and of the E-V32 haplogroup", which they believe suggests "either a recent bottleneck in the population or a proximity to the origin of the haplogroup."
The STR data from Cruciani et al. (2007) concerning E-V12 can be summarized as follows...